Map showing Philip's movements during 339–338 BC. Retrieved from In both accounts of the battle, the superior discipline of the Sacred Band resulted in its annihilation. Archelaus charged this Roman detachment and surrounded them. Way up in the northern section of what is now Greece was another kingdom that was relatively unconcerned with all of this, called Macedon or Macedonia. Polyaenus collected many snippets of information on warfare in his Strategems; some are known from other sources to be reliable, while others are demonstrably false. The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BCE between an Athenian-Theban alliance and the kingdom of Macedon. Battle of Chaeronea, (August 338 bce), battle in Boeotia, central Greece, in which Philip II of Macedonia defeated a coalition of Greek city-states led by Thebes and Athens. Wasson, D. L. (2009, September 02). While these figures are obviously inaccurate, as the close range nature of fighting between the infantry forces must have caused heavier Roman losses, nevertheless, the Pontic forces undoubtedly suffered disproportionately heavier casualties. [40] On the Greek left, the Athenians followed Philip, their line becoming stretched and disordered;[40] the Macedonians then turned, attacked and routed the tired and inexperienced Athenians. The Battle of Chaeronea was the last real resistance Philip II faced in his goal of unifying all of Greece under his authority. What we call the civilization of Ancient Greece wasn't actually a single civilization at all. He then moved further west, capturing the city of Naupaetus. Across from Athenians were the Macedonians, with Philip on the far right, totalling 30,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry.

The Athenians may have fought bravely, but the Battle of Chaeronea is viewed by many to be a turning point in history, after which the Greeks were no longer a military or political threat. [41], Diodorus says that more than 1,000 Athenians died in the battle, with another 2,000 taken prisoner, and that the Thebans fared similarly. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep 2009. What Can You Do With a Masters in History? [43] In the Roman period, the 'Lion of Chaeronea', an enigmatic monument on the site of the battle, was believed to mark the resting place of the Sacred Band. [36] Polyaenus suggests that Philip engaged the Greek left, but then withdrew his troops; the Athenians on the Greek left followed and, when Philip held the high ground, he stopped retreating and attacked the Athenians, eventually routing them. [28] courses that prepare you to earn Even Thebes, long-time rival of Athens, joined the alliance for fear of how quickly Philip was moving across Greece. The terrain of the plain of Chaeronea was integral to the beginning and end of the battle. However, before he was able to take charge of the campaign, Philip was assassinated, and the kingdom of Macedon and responsibility for the war with Persia passed instead to his son Alexander. [3][4] Much of Philip's expansion during this period was at the nominal expense of the Athenians, who considered the north Aegean coast as their sphere of influence, and Philip was at war with Athens from 356–346 BC. After the general engagement had been in progress for some time, Philip had his army perform a wheeling manoeuver, with the right wing withdrawing, and the whole line pivoting around its centre. The Hellenic world in 336 BC, after the establishment of the League of Corinth. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.

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