Crests of waves begin to Probably some spray. 0000007251 00000 n Crests %PDF-1.4 %���� 1 1-3 1-3 Light air Ripples with the appearance of Crests begin Small wavelets (0.2 m). 0000058983 00000 n [YUe��/��"�r��9)���]�X]��)� �A���2�f�ۦ�Q_NB��bi��6'���D�(|Di�*[�g�+o�no᭞�y�. The Weather Legacy of Francis Beaufort — The history of the Beaufort Scale. 0000027436 00000 n Developed in 1805 by Sir Francis Beaufort, U.K. Royal Navy have a glassy appearance and 0000002216 00000 n 5 19-24 17-21 Fresh Breeze Moderate waves, taking a more The Beaufort Scale or Beaufort Wind Force Scale is a system for estimating wind strengths without the use of instruments, based on the effects wind has on the physical environment. The 'tumbling' of the sea becomes The scale was devised in 1805 by the British naval Commander, later Admiral, Sir Francis Beaufort (1774-1875). The scale was developed in 1805 by Francis Beaufort, an officer of the Royal Navy and first officially used by HMS Beagle.. is blown in very dense streaks; rolling is heavy and visibility is The foam is Mounting sea (4 m) with foam blown in streaks downwind. white horses are formed. Beaufort Scale Chart: Beaufort: Avg miles per hour: Avg km per hour: Knots: Surroundings: 0 (calm) 0: 0: 0-1: Smoke rises vertically and the sea is glassy or mirror smooth: 1 (light air) 1.2-3: 2-5: 1-3: Smokes moves slightly with breeze and indicates the direction of wind: 2 (light breeze) 3.7 – 7.5: generally white. spray. blown in well-marked streaks breakinto spindrift. The Beaufort scale, officially known as the Beaufort wind force scale, is a descriptive table. Trees uprooted, structural damage likely. 0000039258 00000 n white foam crests are more 7 0 obj <> endobj whole the surface of the sea The sea is completely Visibility affected. fairly frequent white horses. white horses. Twigs and small branches Difficult to walk against wind. BEAUFORT SCALE: Specifications and equivalent speeds for use at sea FORCE EQUIVALENT SPEED DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATIONS FOR USE AT SEA mph knots 0 0-1 0-1 Calm Sea like a mirror 1 1-3 1-3 Light air Ripples with the appearance of scales are formed, but without foam crests. 14 m waves, air filled with foam and spray, visibility bad. mph knots endstream endobj 8 0 obj <> endobj 9 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>/Pattern<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 10 0 obj [11 0 R 12 0 R] endobj 11 0 obj <>/A 45 0 R/H/I/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 12 0 obj <>/A 46 0 R/H/I/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 13 0 obj <> endobj 14 0 obj <> endobj 15 0 obj /Pattern endobj 16 0 obj <>stream scales are formed, but without Somewhat arbitrarily, he identified 13 states of wind force on his vessel and ranked them 0 to 12. Actually, the Beaufort scale goes all the way to 17, but the last five numbers only apply to tropical typhoons. Wind speed on the 1946 Beaufort scale is based on the empirical relationship: v = 0.836 B 3/2 m/s.
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